Что такое КБГ?

Что такое каннабигерол (КБГ)?


Тысячи лет каннабис используется из-за его многочисленных свойств, но только недавно каннабиноиды и их производные стали приобретать то значение, которое они заслуживают в рамках исследований. Механизмы действия были загадкой до тех пор, пока не были обнаружены тетрагидроканнабинол (ТГК) и первый каннабиноидный рецептор, CB1, а затем эндоканнабиноиды анандамид (арахидоноилэтаноламид, АЭА) и 2-арахидоноилглицерин (2-АГ) .


1-3 АЭА, 2- АГ и CB рецепторы были перегруппированные и классифицированы физиологами как эндоканнабиноидная система (ЭКС) .

1-3 ЭКС представляет собой сложную сеть нейротрансмиттеров и рецепторов, которые работают вместе в передаче сигналов и передаче информации по всему организму, модулируя существенные нейровегетативные функции и помогая поддерживать гомеостаз тела.

4 АЭА чаще всего является тонизирующим сигнальным агентом ЭКС и регулятором синаптических, в то время как 2-АГ действует как активатор фазового сигнала при деполяризации нейронов и медиаторе синаптической пластичности.

5 Фитоканнабиноиды, с другой стороны, представляют собой терпенофенольные соединения, встречающиеся естественным образом в растениях каннабиса. Среди них мы обнаруживаем не только психоактивный тетрагидроканнабинол (ТГК), но также и непсихотические молекулы, такие как каннабидиол (КБД), каннабинол (КБН), каннабигерол (КБГ), каннабихромен (КБХ) и многие другие.


6 Тип молекул КБГ представляет собой естественных прекурсоров каннабиноидов, и они были продемонстрированы в нескольких независимых исследованиях, как имеющие множество различных терапевтических свойств и, таким образом, является многообещающим инструментом для разработки новых методов лечения широкого спектра недугов.

7-8 Мы стремимся информировать научное сообщество о последних разработках исследований свойств и терапевтических эффектов КБГ.

hemp plan with seeds

Phytocannabinoids and synthetic analogues

CBG isolation has been reported for the first time in 1964, when Y. Gaony et al. reported the structure and the partial synthesis of many cannabinoids, among them CBG.9 However, since CBG is present in most of the Cannabis types only in relatively small amount, researchers concentrated their efforts in the more abundant cannabinoids THC and CBD.10–16Beside the cannabinoids occurring in nature, in the last decades many synthetic cannabinoid-inspired compounds have been synthetized as lead drugs for the pharmaceutical market.17,18 Some of these chemically modified cannabinoids do not have the psychotropic effects attributed to THC but at the same time, retain some of the already known cannabinoids therapeutic properties. 17,18 However, synthetic drugs have often the downsides of containing solvent residues and by being novel compounds, to carry with them severe and sometimes life-threatening adverse effects.19,20 Cannabinoids, on the other hand, have been used for their recreational and therapeutic effects for a very long time and no life-threatening side effects have ever been reported.21

Phytocannabinoids like CBD, CBN and CBG retain most of the therapeutic effects of THC, while not being psychotropic. These cannabinoids have been showing to be effective on an increasing amount of diseases and conditions, but their use is unexplainably still limited and unavailable to the mass. Moreover, while many scientific and clinical studies are available for CBD, CBG still remain a fringe compound and its therapeutic properties are still under investigation. 

cbd oil in a bottle

The biochemistry of CBG

As mentioned before, CBG isolation has been reported for the first time in 1964, when Y. Gaoni et al. reported the structure and the partial synthesis of many cannabinoids, among them CBG.9 CBG is a terpenophenolic compound and, like other cannabinoids, can be opportunely divided in three different parts, which not only carry different chemical and pharmaceutical properties, but also influence the bioavailability of the molecule in different ways. The hydrophilic part is represented by the phenolic ring, which is also believed to carry the antibacterial and antimicrobial properties of cannabinoids.22 The ring is then linked to two lipophilic chains on the very opposite ends. One is the n-alkyl chain, while the second one is represented by a terpenoic function, which bears therapeutic action by its own right and seems to be related to many of the medicinal properties of CBG.7 By bearing two lipophilic moieties, CBG, like other cannabinoids, is very poorly water-soluble and at the same time very well absorbed by cell membranes and tissues. 

As mentioned above, CBG is the natural precursor of THC, CBD and CBN. Its phenolic moiety is probably formed via polyketide pathway whereby a triketoacid may be suggested as intermediate. Its cyclization leads to olivetoic acid, which is then C-alkylate by geranyl diphosphate by means of CBGa synthase.23 The carboxylic acid form of this phytocannabinoid, cannabigerolic acid (CBGa), is very important for the synthesis of other phytocannabinoids, and that is the chemical form in which the phytocannabinoid is present in fresh cannabisplant material.8 The correspondent cannabinoids are then obtained by decarboxylation via heat (Figure 1).24 The conversion of CBG acid into THC-, CBD-, and CBN acid is also catalyzed by specific enzymes, which are respectively called THC-, CBD- and CBN acid synthase.

touching hemp plant

Therapeutic properties of CBG

Despite the relatively few investigational studies conducted on CBG, there is evidence of pharmacological actions at a number of targets.  CBG has shown to have relatively weak partial agonistic effect at CB1 (Ki 440 nM) and CB2 (Ki 337 nM), which explain the non-psychotropic properties of the molecule.25 It does however affect endocannabinoid tone indirectly by inhibiting AEA uptake, thereby increasing levels of AEA.8 Older works support CBG as a gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake inhibitor, in a range of affinity comparable or superior than THC or CBD, which could explain the  anti-anxiety and muscle relaxant properties.26 Evans and coworkers in 1991 showed also that CBG presents analgesic and antierythemic effects, by blocking lipooxygenase activity and therefore reducing inflammation in a range of potency that was found to be higher than common analgesics7,27 CBG has also shown to act as antidepressant in rodent models and as a mild anti-hypertensive agent.7,28 Most of the mentioned effects are mediated by its potent activity as ?-2 adrenoreceptor agonist and by its moderate antagonizing binding properties towards 5-HT1A.29,30 Additionally, CBG inhibits keratinocyte proliferation suggesting utility in psoriasis,31 and  by being a relatively potent TRPM8 antagonist, it has been suggested for possible applications in prostate cancer and bladder pain.32,33 Moreover, CBG recently proved to be an effective cytotoxic molecule in human epithelioid carcinoma,34 and the next most effective phytocannabinoid against breast cancer after CBD.35 Finally, CBG demonstrated beside its well know powerful antibacterial and antimicrobial properties (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA), to have modest antifungal effects.22,36,37

In addition, numerous studies have been also suggested possible synergetic effects in association with terpenoids. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behavior when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·mL-1. They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis based medicinal extracts.7 Limonene for example has shown to synergize with CBG and CBD by promoting apoptosis in breast cancer cells,38 while Myrcene, a terpenoid present in hops, synergizes with CBG and CBD by blocking hepatic carcinogenesis aflatoxin induced.39 Also linalool, a terpenoid present in lavender, seems to synergize with CBD and CBG in the treatment of anxiety.40 Moreover, CBC and CBG have been showing synergic properties in association with the terpenoid caryophyllene oxide, a natural compound present in lemon balm, as antifungal, with a potency comparable to commercial antifungal drugs like sulconazole and ciclopiroxolamine.41 Finally, also CBGa has shown synergetic properties in association with the lemon balm terpenoids as insecticidal and anti-feedant, representing a promising alternative for protecting crops and vegetable from insects and parasites.7 

cbd hemp oil products
cbd oil for lyme disease

Future perspectives

CBG* has shown promising results in the many treatments. However, since CBG appears as a relatively low concentration intermediate in the plant, therapeutic administration of CBG oil could be limited by the low amount of compound obtained from plant extraction.

Fortunately, recent breeding work has yielded cannabis chemotypes lacking in downstream enzymes that express 100% of their phytocannabinoid content as CBG.42 After 9 years of hard work and breeding programs at endoca we have created CBG oil and pure 99% CBG isolate. Albeit additional studies are needed in order to confirm and enlarge the wide variety of therapeutic applications of CBG oil.

*We are currently not offering CBG for wholesale 


DEVANE, W. et al. Determination Rat Brain and Characterization of a Cannabinoid Receptor in Rat Brain. Mol. Pharmacol. 34, 605–613 (1988).

Devane, W. a et al. Isolation and Structure of Brain Constituent that binds to the Cannabinoid Receptor. Science (80-. ). 258, 1946–1949 (1992).

Mechoulam, R. et al. Identification Present in Canine Gut , That Binds To Cannabinoid Receptors. 50, 83–90 (1995).

Pertwee, R. G. & Ross, R. A. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fat. Acids 66, 101–121 (2002).

Russo, E. B. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 1, 154–165 (2016).

Mahmoud, A. Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. (Humana Press, 2007).

Russo, E. B. Taming THC: Potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br. J. Pharmacol. 163, 1344–1364 (2011).

Turner, S. E., Williams, C. M., Iversen, L. & Whalley, B. J. Molecular Pharmacology of Phytocannabinoids. (2017). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45541-9

Gaoni, Y. & Mechoulam, R. Isolation, Structure, and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish. J. Am. Chem. Soc 86, 1646–1647 (1964).

Mbvundula, E. C., Rainsford, K. D. & Bunning, R. A. Cannabinoids in pain and inflammation. Inflammopharmacology 12, 99–114 (2004).

Iseger, T. A. & Bossong, M. G. A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophr. Res. 162, 153–161 (2015).

Devinsky, O. et al. Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia 55, 791–802 (2014).

Elsohly, M. A., Radwan, M. M., Gul, W., Chandra, S. & Galal, A. Phytocannabinoids. 103, (2017).

Pertwee, R. G. Endocannabinoids. (Springer US, 2015).

Leo, A., Russo, E. & Elia, M. Cannabidiol and epilepsy: Rationale and therapeutic potential. Pharmacol. Res. 107, 85–92 (2016).

Whiting, P. F. et al. Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Jama 313, 2456–2473 (2015).

Wierzbicki, A. S. Rimonabant: Endocannabinoid inhibition for the metabolic syndrome. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 60, 1697–1706 (2006).

Tai, S. & Fantegrossi, W. E. Synthetic Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Behavioral Effects, and Abuse Potential. Curr Addict Rep. 1, 129–136 (2014).

Gurney, S., Scott, K., Kacinko, S., Presley, B. & Logan, B. Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoid Drugs. Forensic Sci Rev. 26, 53–78 (2014).

Moreira, F. A. & Crippa, J. A. S. The psychiatric side-effects of rimonabant. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. 31, 145–53 (2009).

Rosenthal, E. & Kubby, S. Why Marijushould be legal. (Running press, London, 1996).

Appendino, G. et al. Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa?: A Structure - Activity Study. J. Nat. Prod. 71, 1427–1430 (2008).

Fellermeier, M. & Zenk, M. H. Prenylation of olivetolate by a hemp transferase yields cannabigerolic acid, the precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol. FEBS Lett. 427, 283–285 (1998).

Zirpel, B., Stehle, F. & Kayser, O. Production of???9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid from cannabigerolic acid by whole cells of Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris expressing???9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa l. Biotechnol. Lett. 37, 1869–1875 (2015).

Gauson, L. A. et al. Cannabigerol behaves as a partial agonist at both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Symp. Cannabinoids 26 June-1 July 206 (2007).

Banebjee, S. P., Mechoulam, S. & Snydeji, H. Cannabinoids: influence in neurotransmitter uptake Influence in Rat brain synaptosoms. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 194, 74–81 (1975).

Kargmanss, S., Prasitn, P. & Evans, J. F. Translocation of HL-60 Cell 5-Lipoxygenase. (1991).

Milman, G. et al. N-arachidonoyl L-serine, an endocannabinoid-like brain constituent with vasodilatory properties. PNAS 103, 2428–2433 (2006).

Evelyn, A., Formukong, A., Evans, T. & Evans, F. J. Inhibition of the cataleptic effect of tetrahydrobannabinol by other constituents of Cannabis Sativa L. Jo. Pharm. Pharmacol. 40, 132–134 (1985).

Cascio, M. G., Gauson, L. A., Stevenson, L. A., Ross, R. A. & Pertwee, R. G. Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent ? 2-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT 1A receptor antagonist. Br. J. Pharmacol. 159, 129–141 (2010).

Wilkinson, J. D. & Williamson, E. M. Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 87–92 (2007).

Ortar, G. et al. (-)-Menthylamine derivatives as potent and selective antagonists of transient receptor potential melastatin type-8 (TRPM8) channels. Bioorganic Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 2729–2732 (2010).

Mukerji, G., Yiangou, Y., Agarwal, S. K. & Anand, P. Transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in painful bladder syndrome and its correlation with pain. J. Urol. 176, 797–801 (2006).

SH1, B. et al. Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified Lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells. Arch Pharm Res. 21, 353–356 (1998).

Ligresti, A. et al. Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 318, 1375–1387 (2006).

Eisohly, H. N., Turner, C. E., Clark, A. M. & Eisohly, M. A. Synthesis and Anti-Microbial Activities of Certain Cannabichromene and Cannabigerol Related-Compounds. J. Pharm. Sci. 71, 1319–1323 (1982).

De Petrocellis, L. et al. Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Br. J. Pharmacol. 163, 1479–1494 (2011).

DM, V. et al. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of D-limonene in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Clinical Trials Committee. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 42, 111–117 (1998).

De-oliveira, A. C. A. X., Ribeiro-pinto, L. F., Otto, S. S. & Gonc, A. Induction of liver monooxygenases by i -myrcene. Toxicology 124, 135–140 (1997).

L, R. et al. Rational Basis for the Use of Bergamot Essential Oil in Complementary Medicine to Treat Chronic Pain. Mini Rev Med Chem. 16, 721–728 (2016).

D, Y., L, M., JP, C. & J., M.-C. Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis. Mycopathologia 148, 79–82 (1999).

De Meijer, E. P. M. & Hammond, K. M. The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (II): Cannabigerol predominant plants. Euphytica 145, 189–198 (2005).

Hemp leaves on a light green background


Subscribe to our email newsletter to get 10% off your first order and our free CBD guide. Be the first to hear about Endoca discounts, brand new products and receive CBD tips and tricks directly to your inbox!

Loading animation

We take your privacy seriously. See our Terms & Conditions.

Our website uses cookies to show you relevant content and features for social media and to improve our traffic. The information about your activity is also shared with our collaborators.